Protohittite and Assyrian Trade Colonies Periods ( 3000BC – 1750BC )

assyrian     assyrian 

   Mining and metallurgy reached its peak in Anatolia during the Early Bronze Age.  Major developments were observed in Northern Anatolia towards the end of this period.    Between 2000BC and 1750BC Assyrian merchants from northern Mesopotamia formed the first commercial organisations by establishing trade colonies in Anatolia. The centre of these colonies was at Kanesh Kharum near Kültepe in Kayseri province (Kharum: A commercial market place). Another important commercial market place referred in documents is the Kharum Hattush at Bogazkoy.Anatolia was rich in gold, silver and copper, but lacked tin, essential for obtaining bronze as an alloy.  For this reason tin was one of the major trading materials, as well as textile goods and perfumes.  The merchants had no political dominance, but were protected by the regional Beys. 

  Fortunately for the Assyrian merchants, writing was seen for the first time in Anatolia. From the “Cappadocia tablets”, cuneiform clay tablets on which ancient Assyrian was written, it has been learnt that merchants paid a 10% road tax to the Bey, received 30% interest from locals for, and paid a 5% tax to the Anatolian kings for goods they sold. The same tablets tell us that Assyrian merchants sometimes married Anatolian women, and the marriage agreements contained clauses to protect the women’s rights from their husbands.

 Assyrian merchants also introduced cylinder seals, metallurgy, their religious beliefs, Gods and temples to Anatolia.  Native Anatolian art flourished under the influence of Assyrian Mesopotamic art, eventually developing an identity of its own. During the following ages this developed into the fundamentals of Hittite art.